Cascade Bay has one of the two jetties used for maritime access to Norfolk Island, the other being at Kingston on the opposite coast. The island had been occupied by Polynesians, but they were centuries gone when Captain Cook landed on his second voyage in 1774. The British used it as a penal outpost along with the Australian mainland. The permanent population began with the relocation of 196 mixed-race Pitcairn Islanders in 1856. The island is a volcanic remnant, and its shoreline largely consists of cliffs. The main settlement is Burnt Pine. The area around the base f Mount Bates is preserved as Norfolk Island National Park, about 10 percent of the island, and holds the remaining native forest, including the distinctive tall, Norfolk Island pines, and several indigenous palms and tree ferns. You may possibly hear some locals speaking the creole “Norfuk” language, a mix of 18th century English and Tahitian.