Port Chalmers is the main port for the city of Dunedin. Situated in a natural amphitheater at the head of a long fjord-like inlet, Dunedin was the first permanent European settlement in New Zealand, founded in 1848. Not long afterwards, gold was discovered in the region, and the province quickly became the richest and most influential in the colony. While Christchurch is New Zealand's most English town, Dunedin is its most Scottish; the name Dunedin is the old Gaelic name for Edinburgh. Numerous distinctive and historic buildings remain from the time of its predominantly Scottish settlers, preserving its architectural heritage.